If you are diagnosed with cancer, WVU Cancer Institute surgeons might recommend surgery. Our surgical oncologists are experts in both complex, hard-to-treat cancers and cancers that are more common. We have a broad understanding of the latest cancer treatments, including minimally invasive robotic surgery. Each year, our team performs almost 2,000 surgical procedures.
Our goal is to give you care tailored to your needs and the type and stage of cancer you have. We bring together a team of surgeons who work closely with other cancer specialists, including medical and radiation oncologists, pathologists, and complementary medicine practitioners. Together, we design a plan that fights your cancer in the best possible way.
Types of Cancer Surgery We Offer
At the WVU Cancer Institute, we offer minimally invasive and robotic approaches whenever possible. We also offer the latest in reconstructive surgery after cancer.
As per World Health Organization, there are more than 100 different types of brain and spine tumors. Neurosurgeons remove these tumors or reduce the size of these tumors to aid in decreasing tumor-related symptoms in patients as well as to confirm a diagnosis for future treatments.
Types of brain and spine cancer surgery we offer include:
- Craniotomy — In this common type of brain surgery, a neurosurgeon makes an opening in your skull to remove all or part of a tumor. This method is performed in various ways, including an awake craniotomy using local anesthesia when a tumor is close to an area of the brain that controls vital functions such as speech or vision.
- Tumor removal and debulking — A neurosurgeon performs partial or complete removal of the tumor to prevent further neurological damage.
- Endovascular neurosurgical oncology techniques — These minimally invasive surgical approaches use image-guided techniques to diagnose or remove a tumor.
- Skull base surgery — This neurosurgical technique is used to remove a tumor or other growth at the base or bottom of the skull.
- Neuroendoscopy procedures — In these minimally invasive surgical procedures, the tumor is removed through small holes in your skull.
- Chemotherapy implants — These implants can be inserted by neurosurgeons into the brain tumor or spinal tumor tissue to deliver chemotherapy.
- Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) — This laser therapy is used by neurosurgeons to precisely target and ablate the tumor.
- Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) — This procedure delivers radiation therapy directly to the tumor without causing significant side effects in the surrounding area.
- Focused ultrasound therapy (FUS) — It is a non-invasive therapeutic strategy to overcome the blood brain barrier and enhance the penetration of treatments in the brain.
- Spine surgeries — En bloc resection, posterolateral resection, spinal cord decompression, and instrumentation are various spine surgical approaches to remove spine tumors.
Surgery is often a part of breast cancer treatment. Breast surgery may be used to remove cancerous tumors, determine if cancer has spread to your lymph nodes, or lessen symptoms of advanced cancer. Reconstructive surgery helps restore your breast shape after the removal of cancer.
Types of breast cancer surgery we offer include:
- Breast-conserving surgery — This minimally invasive approach removes only the part of your breast that has cancer. It’s also called a partial mastectomy or a lumpectomy.
- Mastectomy — This surgery removes your entire breast to treat or prevent cancer.
- Sentinel lymph node biopsy — This minimally invasive procedure allows doctors to determine if cancer has spread to local lymph nodes and helps guide subsequent therapies.
- Lymph node dissection — This is a surgery used to remove lymph nodes with cancer or those with a high likelihood that cancer has spread to them.
- Breast reconstruction — After cancer surgery, breast reconstruction restores the shape and size of your affected breast.
Surgeons use colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy to remove tissue samples (biopsy) that are studied under a microscope and evaluated for precancerous or cancerous conditions.
Types of surgery we perform for colorectal cancer include:
- Colectomy — In this surgery, doctors remove the part of your colon with the cancer and nearby lymph nodes.
- Low anterior resection — In this surgery, doctors remove part of the rectum and nearby lymph nodes for rectal cancer. This operation is done to avoid having a permanent colostomy.
- Diverting colostomy — If cancer of the colon or rectum causes a bowel blockage, this surgery relieves the blockage.
- Polypectomy and local excision — In this procedure, polyps are removed during a colonoscopy using a thin wire loop.
- Transanal endoscopy microsurgery (TEMS) — This minimally invasive approach is used to remove tumors in your rectum with tiny instruments.
Minimally invasive surgical approaches help treat cancers that affect the thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands. Patients with these cancers often have a variety of physicians who help care for them, including endocrinologists who help manage the medical aspects of these diseases.
Types of endocrine cancer surgery we offer include:
- Adrenalectomy — This operation is typically performed in a minimally invasive fashion and includes removing the nodule and entire adrenal gland on one side of the body. Surrounding lymph nodes are often removed in conjunction.
- Lymph node dissection — Surgeons perform this procedure if thyroid cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes within the neck.
- Pancreatectomy — Endocrine malignancies of the pancreas sometimes require removal of the nodule within or an entire portion of the pancreas.
- Thyroid lobectomy — Doctors use this surgery to remove part of your thyroid gland or lobes that contain cancer cells.
- Total thyroidectomy — This surgery is used to remove all of the thyroid gland.
Surgery is used to treat cancer that affects your larynx, pharynx, sinus, or oral cavity. This includes the mouth, sinuses, nose, and throat.
Types of head and neck cancer surgeries we perform include:
- Laryngectomy — This is a surgery to remove your larynx and to separate the airway from the mouth, nose, and esophagus.
- Transoral laser microsurgery (TLIM) — In this laser surgery, doctors use an endoscope to place a laser to remove or destroy a tumor and save as much of your vocal cords as possible. It’s used to treat dysplasia or small laryngeal cancer.
- Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) — Surgeons remove a tumor in your oropharynx located in the back of your throat.
- Microvascular reconstructive surgery — Doctors perform this surgery to restore the appearance and function of your mouth. The surgery involves reconstructing part of your jaw, the roof of the mouth, or tongue.
- Sinonasal surgery — Surgeons treat sinus cancer with this approach, and it’s usually performed through your nose, nasal cavity, or sinuses.
Surgery is one of the most common approaches to treat stomach and esophageal cancer.
Types of surgery we use to treat gastric and esophageal cancer include:
- Endoscopic mucosal resection — Surgeons remove or destroy small tumors in the esophagus or stomach working from the inside with a scope.
- Esophagectomy — Doctors remove some or most of your esophagus to eliminate cancer.
- Partial gastrectomy — Surgeons use this approach to treat stomach cancer in the middle or lower part of the stomach.
- Total gastrectomy — Cancer found in the upper area of your stomach is treated with this type of surgery. If your entire stomach must be removed, surgeons connect your esophagus directly to your small intestine.
Different surgical approaches are used to treat gynecologic cancers, and it depends on the type of gynecologic cancer you have.
Types of surgery we perform to treat gynecological cancer include:
- Fertility-sparing surgery — This approach spares your reproductive organs or freezes your eggs or embryos (cryopreservation) to preserve future fertility.
- Minimally invasive surgery — Also called keyhole surgery, surgeons perform abdominal procedures through small incisions. Minimally invasive techniques include laparoscopy and robotic approaches.
- Radical cytoreductive (debulking) surgery — This approach is used to remove as much of a tumor as possible.
- Sentinel lymph node mapping — Surgeons remove lymph nodes containing cancer, usually in endometrial cancer.
- Single-incision laparoscopic surgery — In this surgery, doctors use a one-inch incision in your belly button to perform surgery. This can reduce scarring and improve your recovery time.
Surgery is one of the most common treatments for liver cancer and helps remove primary liver cancers or cancers that spread to the liver (metastasis). Surgeons can remove up to 80 percent of the liver, and it will grow back if the remaining liver is healthy.
Types of surgery we perform for liver cancer include:
- Partial hepatectomy — This surgery removes the part of the liver with cancer, and many of these procedures are done with minimally invasive and robotic techniques.
- Liver ablation — Using heat energy, doctors destroy liver tumors without removing any part of the liver.
- Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) — An endoscope, or a tube with a light at the end, is placed in your mouth and gently guided through your throat to diagnose and treat certain cancers.
Surgery for lung cancer involves removing part or all of your lung. Depending on the type and stage of lung cancer you have, surgeons may remove the tumor and surrounding cancerous tissue.
There are two approaches to lung cancer surgery — thoracotomy (an incision on the back and side of the chest to access the lung) and minimally invasive surgery.
Types of lung cancer surgery we offer include:
- Laser surgery — Surgeons use this approach to treat early stage non-small cell lung cancer.
- Lobectomy — This surgical approach removes part or all of a lobe of your lung.
- Pneumonectomy — Your entire lung is removed during this procedure.
- Segmentectomy — Surgeons remove a segment of certain lobes and preserve any tissue not affected by cancer.
- Sleeve resection — This procedure helps preserve your lung function by removing only part of your large airway.
- Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) — This surgical approach uses a thin tube with a video camera inserted into your chest through a small incision. Surgeons can view and remove cancer cells.
This type of surgery is used to remove tumors that have spread to the abdomen’s inner lining (peritoneal surface), most commonly cancers from the appendix, colon, or rectum.
Types of surgery we perform include:
- Cytoreduction — This is a complex procedure that removes all of the visible tumors sitting on the inner lining of the abdomen.
- HIPEC — During the same surgery as cytoreduction, surgeons wash the abdomen with heated chemotherapy to destroy any tumors too small to see.
Surgery is one of the most common treatments for basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. For skin cancer with a high risk of spreading to surrounding tissue or organs, we combine surgery with treatments such as radiation and chemotherapy. Care of these malignancies requires a multidisciplinary treatment team that often consists of primary care physicians, dermatologists, surgical oncologists, plastic surgeons, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, and many others.
Types of skin cancer surgery we offer include:
- Cryosurgery — In this approach, surgeons use extreme cold to kill skin cancer cells.
- Mohs surgery — This is a complex surgery that takes many hours. Surgeons remove the cancer cells in very thin layers until all the cancer cells are eliminated.
- Laser surgery — This surgical approach uses lasers to cut or destroy cancer cells.
- Reconstructive surgery — Surgeons often utilize skin and subcutaneous tissue from surrounding areas of the body to reconstruct the area where the tissue was removed to treat the skin cancer.
- Sentinel lymph node biopsy — Every part of the body drains to a lymph node somewhere. This procedure helps to identify the lymph node that specifically drains the affected area of the skin. Surgeons then excise this lymph node to test for the spread of cancer.
- Skin grafting — After resectioning skin cancer, a defect may require tissue coverage from other parts of the body. This skin may be taken in various ways and include full thickness or partial thickness skin grafts depending upon the situation.
- Wide local excision — Surgeons use this approach to remove a tumor and some surrounding healthy tissue.
Surgery is used to treat many cancers affecting the prostate, testicles, bladder, and kidney.
Types of surgery we offer for urologic cancer include:
- Biopsy — Doctors use this procedure to remove suspected cancer cells, which are examined by a pathologist to help diagnose and stage cancer.
- Continent diversion — In this procedure, the surgeon makes a pouch from a piece of your intestine where urine is stored. The urine is emptied through a valve into a catheter.
- Cystectomy — This is a procedure to remove all or part of your bladder. Surgeons access your bladder through a laparoscopic (small) incision in your abdomen.
- Nephrectomy — Surgeons use this procedure to remove all or part of one or both of your kidneys.
- Orchiectomy — This is a procedure to remove one or both testicles.
- Prostatectomy — Surgeons use this procedure to remove all or part of your prostate.
- Radical inguinal orchiectomy — This surgery removes the testicle that has a tumor, as well as the spermatic cord that connects the testicle to your abdomen.
- Transurethral resection — This procedure is used to treat early stage bladder cancer, and the surgeon uses a wire loop to remove abnormal tissues or tumors.
- Whipple procedure (pancreatic duodenectomy) — This is an advanced surgery used to remove the head of your pancreas, the first part of your small intestine, your gallbladder, and your bile duct.